The history of blackjack would not be complete without
mentioning the life and contributions of Ken Uston, who
primarily played the popular casino game during the 1970s and
1980s. Ken dedicated those years of his life to becoming one of
the best blackjack players around. He mastered card counting
methods that had never been used in casinos before and he even
joined a very successful blackjack team.
He wrote extensively on the subject in the four books he
published, which are still read by thousands of gambling
enthusiasts today. For his impact on the game of blackjack and
his advanced playing abilities, he was one of the first men to
be inducted into the Blackjack Hall of Fame. To learn more about
Ken Uston and his award winning strategies, please continue
reading this detailed biography.
Ken Uston, also known as Kenneth Senzo Usui, was born in New
York City on January 12th, 1935 to a middle class family. He
spent the majority of his childhood growing up in Long Island,
eventually moving to the more timid town of New Haven,
Connecticut. Ken’s father was a businessman from Japan who came
over to America just six years before Ken was born.
Eventually his father became a Foreign Language Teacher at
Yale University, inspiring his son to set his career goals high.
Ken’s mother had travelled to the states from Austria; she spent
the majority of her time volunteering at local children’s
hospitals and teaching children how to read. After Ken, the
family had two daughters: Lynn and Nancy.
Just weeks after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, the family got a
knock on their door from American Soldiers who were there to
take Ken’s father to a concentration camp for Japanese
Americans. They were suspicious that some of the Japanese
Americans in the country had been involved with the horrible
events of Pearl Harbor.
Ken’s father was taken away from the family, with no promise
of being returned home safely. This was a frightening experience
for the whole family, and it made Ken resent the government for
a while. Thankfully, Ken’s father was released just a few months
later and the family was able to return back to life as normal.
Education/ Early Career Choices
Ken, who was inspired by his parents, worked very hard in
school, being accepted into Yale University just after his
sixteenth birthday. Upon graduation, he moved on to Harvard
University, where he earned his Master’s degree.
Ken spent the next few years working various good paying
jobs, eventually getting married to the woman of his dreams:
Betty. They had two daughters and one son; Ken finally had the
beautiful family he had always wanted. Out of the blue, Ken got
an enticing job offer to be senior management consultant at
Cresap, McCormick & Paget in San Francisco.
The entire family headed west for the beautiful state of
California, but it seemed as if Ken was never content with a job
for very long. He switched careers so often that his family
could hardly keep up. It was clear that Ken felt like there was
something missing in his life, but little did Ken know that what
he was looking for was just around the corner.
Becoming a Blackjack Master
On the weekends, Ken would visit the nearby casinos and play
blackjack to take away the pain from everyday stresses. He had a
natural talent for the game, but he still had a lot of room for
improvements. After several months of playing faithfully on the
weekends, he was approached by the legendary Al Francesco, who
recruited him to join his professional blackjack team.
Without hesitation or consulting his family, Ken decided to
take Al Francesco up on his offer, even though it meant spending
many hours on the road travelling to different casinos in the
area. Ken was quickly introduced to all of the team members and
spent the next several weeks learning their count down
strategies and other mathematical card counting methods that
made that team so profitable.
Ken eventually had to give up both his career and his family
life to pursue his new passion of being a professional blackjack
player. His marriage ended up crumbling and he had estranged
relationships with his children. Even his parents were unhappy
with his career choices; his mother once said,
“I have never
gambled and I was not happy that he was in blackjack. You don’t
spend a fortune at Yale and Harvard to become a blackjack
Al Francesco’s team was known for using the “Big Player”
strategy. This technique consisted of players that would play at
various tables across the casino; their role was to wait for
opportunities where the count was high and where they could
easily gain a 1.5 to 2.5 percent edge over the house. When these
situations came along, they would motion over a big player who
would join the game and place extremely large bets. These big
players were known for winning thousands of dollars in very
short amounts of time, leaving the table as soon as the edge
switched in favor of the dealer.
Ken was the main “Big Player,”for Al’s blackjack team. His
first time playing as a “Big Player” for the team was on their
trip to the Fremont Casino of Las Vegas. After forty five
minutes of play, Ken won over $27,000, which was very impressive
for a first timer. The more Ken’s skills at the tables improved,
the more attention he would get from Casino personnel.
The first casino to pay close attention to him was the Sands
Casino and Resort of Las Vegas; they threatened to arrest him
after he won $200,000 in one night if he didn’t leave the
premises immediately. Ken and Al’s team eventually were barred
at other casinos including Castaway, the Desert Inn, the
Frontier, Landmark, and the Silver Slipper. Keep in mind that
this team didn’t limit themselves to the casinos of Las Vegas,
as they were known for venturing to Atlantic City and various
countries in Europe too.
A New Phase of His Career
Some consider Ken a traitor and some consider him a hero for
what he did next. In 1977, he co-authored a book with Roger
Rapoport titled, “The Big Player: How a Team of Blackjack
Players Made a Million Dollars,” that exposed all Al Francesco’s
team secrets, making it nearly impossible for them to set foot
in the casinos together again. Al and Ken’s friendship was
forever strained, and many other card counters resented Ken as
Despite some negative attention, Ken was asked to appear on
Good Morning America to talk about his book and his impact on
the world of blackjack. Prior to his guest appearance, a camera
crew followed him around the Horseshoe Casino and Resort,
filming his Big Player techniques while staying incognito. While
they were filming, Ken won over $10,000. As Good Morning America
aired that footage, people grew fond of Ken Uston and encouraged
him to keep writing about blackjack.
Ken wrote several other books about blackjack including One
Third of a Shoe in 1979, Million Dollar Blackjack in 1981, and
Ken Uston on Blackjack in 1986. He dedicated One Third of a Shoe
to his father writing,
“Senzo Usui. The man who made it all
possible and who I deeply disappointed when I changed my name. I
am proud to be a Usui. I love you Dad.”
Million Dollar Blackjack would probably be considered his
most popular book; it describes some of the card counting
methods he invented such as the Uston Advanced Point Count,
Uston Advance Plus-Minus Count, and the Uston SS Card Counting
His Own Blackjack Team
In between writing, Ken formed his own team of professional
card counters who used a variety of techniques to win millions
from the casinos. The team would wear different disguises to
each place they went, so that no one knew who they were. They
would even use fake ids to help keep their true identity a
The main difference between Al’s old team and Ken’s new team
was the use of electronics to gain an edge over the casinos. Ken
used a small computer the size of a cigarette; it was often
referred to as “George.” It processed information through four
buttons, using a unique binary code that a player would enter to
tell the computer what cards were in their hand. The computer
responded with either a long or short vibration to inform the
player if they should hit or stay.
Rumor has it that his team once made over $350,000 in profit
by using these devices in one weekend in Atlantic City. The
computers worked for his team the majority of the time, but they
weren’t without their flaws. The battery pack in the machine was
known to overheat and cause mild burns on the people who were
Eventually Ken and his team started being barred from the
casinos, which subsequently made them very upset. He chose to
take one casino in particular, Resorts International, to court
for barring them for unjustifiable reasons. Ken understood why
casinos would ban his team if they were using the computers, but
in this particular instant, they were using only basic card
counting methods that involved them performing mathematical
equations in their head. Ken won his case against the casino,
explaining that the money they had won was merely a result of
Since Atlantic City casinos couldn’t ban card counters from
the casinos anymore, they found other ways to stop card counters
from winning. They increased the number of times they shuffled a
deck during a game and they increased the number of decks they
used in a game to hinder card counters from being profitable.
Although some people were able to overcome these new obstacles,
Ken wasn’t willing to dedicate the time needed to do so.
Moving on from Blackjack
His passion for blackjack had faded and he was ready for the
next phase of life. Ken was determined to mend the broken
relationships he had with his family by showing them that he had
finally turned his life around. He took his children on a
weeklong trip to Disneyland, trying to reconnect with them once
more. He also took several trips to Japan to visit his parents
who had returned to their home country several years prior. His
father died at age 79, before telling Ken that he had forgiven
him for the pain he caused the family.
Since repairing family strains wasn’t as easy as Ken was
hoping it would be and in order to cope with the loss of his
father, he filled his emotional gap by playing classic video
games such as Breakout, Pong, and Space Invaders. He became
obsessed with playing, once renting a house in California with a
bunch of friends to play Space Invaders three consecutive days
in a row without sleep.
It wasn’t until PAC-MAN hit the market that Ken started to
compete in video game tournaments. He would travel across the
country, often winning thousands of dollars by placing first
place in these competitions. He claims he played for the love of
the game, not for the possible financial rewards he could gain
from it. Ken actually published the book called, “Mastering
PAC-MAN,” which made it in to the New York Times Best Seller
List just a few months later.
After playing video games no longer excited him, Ken moved to
Kuwait for a new lifestyle with a different change of pace. In
Kuwait gambling is illegal, so that was never a temptation for
him. There were actually no video games to distract him either.
“I had culture shock the whole time that I was there,” Ken said.
He had to adjust to a more simplistic lifestyle, and it was
truly a humbling experience for him.
He stayed in a Hilton Hotel during his stay, but he was
surrounded by impoverished villages that had little to no
resources to work with. He found it hard to relate with these
people, feeling very alone during his entire stay. He turned to
Jazz music for comfort, playing the piano on a daily basis. Ken
faithfully wrote his experience in a diary that eventually got
published into an online book called, “An American in Kuwait.”
This book helps readers understand the emotional difficulties
Ken went through while living in Kuwait.
Ken spent the finals month of his life in Paris, France with
a women named Margaret who he met on an afternoon visit to
London. Margaret came to Ken’s home to find him dead in a chair,
holding his piano and smiling. He was found on September 19th,
1987, but an autopsy showed that he died two days prior. He was
only 52 years old, dying from a combination of drug overdose and
His family flew to Paris to identify the body and claim his
belongings. Unfortunately, many of his personal belongings had
been stolen before they arrived. He was cremated a few days
later, as that was his dying wish. Nearly fifteen years after
Ken passed away, his family got a call saying he would be one of
the original seven members inducted into the Blackjack Hall of
Fame. His family went to the inaugural ceremony where they were
greeted by a community of blackjack enthusiasts who had grown to
respect Ken for his accomplishments.
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